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Glossary


Abrasion resistance ability to resist the effects of rubbing.
Absorbency ability to take in moisture.
Aesthetic design the art of planning and producing what the individual perceives as being beautiful.
Amorphous a random arrangement of polymers.
Analysis to determine the nature or essential features of an object or a situation.
Apparel clothing or dress.
Applique pieces of fabric sewn onto a base fabric.
Bicomponent filament a filament produced by extruding two different polymer solutions so they join just prior to coagulating.
Blends a yarn or fabric that combines the desirable characteristics of two or more fibres, natural or man-made.
Carding a process to tease wool staples apart and to lay the fibres parallel.
Cellulosic fibres fibres of vegetable origin including natural fibres such as cotton and linen and regenerated cellulosics such as rayon and acetate.
Colourfast feature of fabrics in which colours do not noticeably change for the life of the fabric.
Combing a process which occurs after carding to separate the short fibres from the long fibres and ensures the long fibres lay parallel. Combing is the additional process used in the production of worsted yarns.
Contemporary of the present time, modern.
Costume
  1. a style or fashion of dress, especially that of a particular place, time or class.
  2. a garment worn by actors in theatrical or film performances.
Course row of loops in knitting.
Creativity original thought or expression.
Crystalline polymers arranged in a parallel order.
Culture aspects of living developed by a group of people and passed from one generation to the next.
Denier the weight in grams of 9000 metres of yarn, usually applied only to monofilament and multifilament yarn.
Design to plan a process or production of an object with a defined purpose.
Dimensional stability the ability of a fabric to maintain its dimensions, that is, no shrinking or skewing of the fabric.
Drapability is the ability of fabrics to fall in graceful folds.
Drip dry phrase used to describe fabrics which after washing, and without wringing, are hung on a hanger to drip dry.
Durability resistance to average wear and tear based on the elasticity, flexibility and resilience of the fibre and fabric as well as the absolute strength.
Easy-care describes any fabric and/or garment which requires little or no ironing after laundering or dry cleaning, tends not to wrinkle easily, does not shrink
Ecological the relationship of the scientific study of living things to each other and to their environment.
Elasticity the ability of a fibre to recover from extension or elongation.
Elongation the process of drawing out to a greater length, stretching.
Embroidery decorating fabric using stitches.
Enhance to improve or increase the value of something.
Environmental impact the effect of a process or object on the environment in the short or long-term.
Evaluation to appraise carefully, to identify the positive and negative aspects of a process or object.
Experimentation to explore a number of different ideas, materials or processes using tests to find the best solution to a problem.
Fabric a manufactured material made from woven, knitted or bonded fibres.
Felt a non-woven fabric that is made of matted fibres of wool, fur or mohair, often mixed with cotton or rayon. Short fibres are matted by combination of heat, moisture and pressure. 
Fibre the basic natural or man-made material used in the production of a yarn.
Fibre blend refers to a yarn or fabric composed of two or more different fibres, each of the fibres blended being found in each of the yarns in the fabric.
Fibre mixture refers to a fabric which is composed of two or more yarns, each of these yarns having been spun from a different textile fibre.
Filament yarn yarn made from infinitely long filament fibres.
Finish an end treatment applied to a fabric to add to its versatility and serviceability or enhance its appearance or feel.
Functional design a design which satisfies the intended purpose by working effectively by performing all the required functions.
Globalisation the process of encompassing the whole world in a particular field. The blurring of the boundaries between countries, for example the global economy.
Grey goods woven or knitted fabrics straight from the loom or knitting machine.
Heirloom piece of personal property that has been in a family for generations.
Hemp a strong, cellulose fibre used for making ropes and coarse fabrics.
Image a representation of the form of an object using graphics.
Innovation introducing new or improved ideas.
Inspiration the effect of a thing or action on your ideas.
Isometric drawing a three-dimensional drawing. It is drawn with one corner closest to the drawer. The left and right sides slope backward at 30 degrees. All vertical edges are drawn vertically.
Jacquard fabric made on a complex loom which allows each warp thread to be lifted individually which produces fabrics with a raised design, often reversible to either side.
Justification an explanation of relevant points to support a point of view or decision.
Knit fabric made by inter-looping yarns.
Lace this fabric is technically not a fabric as it has no ground, is not woven, knitted or felted, but is a delicate open work, consisting of a web of fine threads formed into a design. Lace may be hand or machine-made from nearly every fibre.
Laminated term usually associated with fabric that is joined to a backing of synthetic foam; provides insulation and warmth with little weight or bulk, built-in-shape retention and wrinkle-resistance.
Lustre sheen, gloss.
Manufacture the making of goods by hand or by machine on a large scale.
Microfibre refers to extremely fine acrylic, nylon and polyester fibres (filament with a fineness of less than 1 deci for polyester and 1.2 deci tex for nylon).
Molecular structure the chemical structure of a fibre. The identification of the molecules that make up a fibre, for example, the basic unit of celluose is glucose.
Monomer the small molecules that joined together to form the enormously long, linear polymer suitable for textile fibre manufacture.
Morphological structure the physical structure of a fibre, for example, the lumen in cotton and the effect of the convolutions.
Nap the fibrous surface of a fabric, often with an obvious right way, for example,velvet.
Natural fibres all fibres which come from nature, including animal and vegetable.
Niche a small and specialised market.
Non-woven fabric a class of fabric made from a web of fibres.
Notions the additional things required to complete a garment, for example, buttons, zippers. Haberdashery items.
Oblique drawing a drawing where the front view of the object is shown as its true shape and size, and one side, left or right recedes or is projected at 45 degrees to the horizontal and half the actual measurement.
Orthogonal drawing a scale drawing which shows different views of any object. It is useful in showing the 3D shape of an object by giving the top, side and front views.
Perspective drawing a three-dimensional drawing which represents the object in relation to its environment.
Polyamide chemical name of nylon-type fibres.
Polymer an enormously long molecule formed from monomers.
Printing the technique of applying colour to a surface using either a roller, screen or block.
Protein polymer formed from amino acids. Wool and silk are protein fibres.
Quality control maintaining a degree or standard of excellence by controlling variables.
Regenerated fibres fibres made by reprocessing substances from natural sources. Rayon and acetate are regenerated cellulosics.
Rendered drawing a drawing which has been coloured and enhanced to give a realistic impression of the object.
Resilience the ability of something to resume its original shape after being bent or compressed.
Selvedge the reinforced side edges of woven fabric.
Shibori ancient Japanese resist-dyeing method using sewing, binding and tying processes.
Spandex man-made, synthetic, elastane fibre.
Spinning the drawing out and twisting of fibres to produce a yarn.
Standard, The Australian Standards Mark (AS Mark) available under license to any manufacturer who can satisfy the owners, namely the Standards Association of Australia, that they are capable of producing and will accept responsibility to produce articles which comply with an appropriate Australian Standard.
Staple fibres short fibres; those, which are not filaments.
Staple yarn yarn made by twisting staple fibres together.
Strength resists strain and wear.
Stretch yarns yarns made from thermoplastic filaments which stretch and recover. There are two types of stretch yarns: crimp and twist.
Sustainability the ability to maintain or keep something going.
Swatch a sample piece of fabric.
Synthetic fibres fibres that are chemically created.
Synthetic polymer polymer created artificially by building small chemical units into long chains.
Tactile relating to the sense of touch.
Target market the particular section of the market an item or service is aimed at. Teenagers may be a target market.
Tex the international yarn count. The tex of any yarn is the weight in grams of 1000 metres of yarn.
Texture the surface quality of materials, tactile and visual.
Textured yarns have more bulk and occupy more space or volume, or appear less dense and are lighter in weight than the equivalent conventional yarns.
Thermal relating to heat or temperature. Wool has good thermal qualities.
Thermoplastic fibres that, under heat and pressure, can be softened and will then take on the shape or configuration desired.
Thread a special yarn, usually finer, smoother and stronger than what is usually considered a yarn.
Trademark brand names, and/or symbol; usually registered by a company and refers to products of a constant, recognisable quality.
Twist level the number of turns per centimetre of a yarn when fibres are twisted together in the spinning process to make a yarn.
Wale the column of loops in knitted fabrics.
Warp the lengthwise yarns in a woven fabric.
Weft the crosswise yarns in a fabric.
Woollen a yarn made from wool and the fabric made from this yarn. The surface is a little hairy due to the short staple fibres.
Worsted a smooth wool yarn featuring the longer fibres, worsted yarns have undergone combing. A worsted fabric has a smoother surface than a woollen fabric.
Woven fabric made by the interlacing of warp and weft threads on a loom.
Yarn a generic term for a continuous, twisted strand of textile fibres or filaments in a suitable form for knitting, weaving or otherwise intertwining to form a textile fabric.
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