Faith Bandler: Faith, Hope and Reconciliation -1999
Sir William Deane – Governor General of the Commonwealth of Australia on the Occasion of an ecumenical service for the victims of the canyoning tragedy.
Anwar Sadat, President of Egypt. Statement to the Knesset
The text of the speeches set for study for 2009-2014 are available at: www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au
The syllabus for this module requires you to:
The first step in developing your personal response is engage with the text through a close reading for meaning and purpose. Analyse and evaluate the use of language and rhetorical devices and how the composer uses them to develop their meaning and achieve their purpose with their intended audience. Next you can consider the extent to which your own context has influenced your interpretation and perspective of the speech. Once you have completed your research into the context of the speech and the speaker, reconsider the value of the speech and the question of textual integrity. Finally, reconsider the speech in relation to the other speeches set for study. You will find there are shared values and issues. Analyse, evaluate and synthesise your responses to the texts in response to the Board of Studies rubric for Module B, Critical Study of Text.
Integrating a personal interpretation and the interpretation of others
It is important to research contemporary responses such as reviews to each speech and consider the influence of context on the speaker and the responders. You will also need to evaluate how your personal context has influenced your responses to the speeches themselves and the perspectives of others.
The relevance of critical theory in this module continues to concern students and you need to remember that what is important is your informed understanding of and response to the text. When responding to each speech read widely on the context of the speaker and the occasion of the speech itself. What were the perspectives of others at the time? Reviews, feature articles, websites, biographies and autobiographies can provide insight. Critical theories such as Marxist, feminist and post colonial are useful as background to differing perspectives but they are not a substitute for your personal perspective and your ability to develop a fluent, sophisticated, interpretation and evaluation of the speech.
Textual integrity too often concerns students. Simply put, it means that you should not impose any interpretation on the text that is not valid for the text as a whole by choosing specific examples and ignoring other aspects of the text. Similarly, you should evaluate how effectively the composer has developed and integrated key aspects of the speech, such as purpose, audience, context, language, tone, style and rhetorical devices. Therefore, the humour and extensive literary allusions that distinguishes Attwood’s speech would be inappropriate in the context of Aung San Suu Kyi’s Keynote address although both speakers are addressing the rights of women, concepts of justice and the importance of freedom.
When you have developed your own critical response to each speech, you need to refine your perspective by analysing and evaluating the perspectives of others. You do not have to agree with their interpretations but rather use them to critically evaluate or refine your own perspective.
Our cultural, social and historical context, inevitably influence our perspective of our world and our interpretation of texts. It is when we research and evaluate a variety to responses to the text in differing contexts that we can develop and appreciation of the reception and value of the text concerned. This process also enables us to understanding how changes in context potentially influence the meaning and value of each speech.
You must have a thorough and considered understanding of the following components of the speech:
From A Handbook of Rhetorical Devices – Robert A. Harris and
Remember that you may not be required to write an essay response for HSC assessments or in the exam. Therefore, develop your ability to respond to the texts through a variety of imaginative, interpretive and analytical compositions. Refine your ability to respond to the texts in a variety of text types such as: review, interview, speech, conversation, feature article. Refer to past HSC questions as a guide as to what to expect.
‘Central to the module is the development of deep knowledge and understanding of the text through personal engagement.’ Notes from the Marking Centre, 2007
“[Better responses]…. often contextualised discussions, briefly drawing on the significant influences on composers and/or the social or historical circumstances which influence responses.” Notes from the Marking Centre, 2007
How have personal factors influenced the speaker and what evidence is there in the text, including quotes. How might these personal factors have been used to engage the audience?
Context of the speech
What aspects of the historical, cultural and political context have influenced the speech? What evidence is there in the text, including quotes? How are language and rhetorical devices used to engage, motivate, inspire, empower or challenge the audience?
What historical, cultural factors influence your attitude to the text? Consider your ethnicity, age, gender and values. How might your context have affected your response to the speech?
Central Ideas &Themes
As you respond to each speech consider the function of personal anecdotes, contextual references, intertextual references, language and rhetorical devices are used to develop and explore central issues and values.
Develop the table below with a critical analysis of each speech.
|Central idea||Example from speech/quotes||Your response/ others response||Links to other prescribed speeches|
Consider the following values. What values are important to each of the speeches?
How does each speech represent/ explore these values? Include quotes, language and rhetorical devices.
Are these values relevant to your time and place?
Notes from the Marking Centre
Section II – Module B: Critical Study of Texts
following definitions are taken from the English Stage 6 Syllabus
Context: The range of personal, social, historical, cultural and workplace conditions in which a text is responded to and composed.
Critical thinking: The ability to think using hypothesis and deduction as a way to question, interpret and draw conclusions.
Culture: The social practices of a particular people or group, including shared beliefs, values, knowledge, customs and lifestyle.
Evaluate: To estimate the worth of a text in a range of contexts and to justify that estimation and its process.
Interpretation: Explanation of meaning within the context of one’s own understanding.
Meaning: The dynamic relationship between text ad responder involving information (explicit and implicit), the affective and the contextual.
Perspective: A way of regarding situations, facts and texts and evaluating their relative significance.
Textual integrity: The unity of a text; its coherent use of form and language to produce an integrated whole.
Value (verb) To estimate or assign worth to a text; to consider something to have worth.
Value (noun) A quality desirable as a means or an end to itself.
Faith Bandler, born September 27, 1918, is descended from South Sea Islanders. Her father, Peter Mussing was kidnapped from Vanuatu to work without pay in sugarcane fields in Queensland. Her childhood in Tumbulgum, Tweed River NSW included helping her family grow vegetables and she was influenced by songs of American slaves and her father’s preaching. Other influences included watching her mother nurse the sick and wanting to emulate her brother Walter.
Bandler had personal experience of the discrimination faced by Indigenous Australians growing up in Murwillumbah but succeeded nonetheless becoming the first non-white student attempting the Higher School Certificate in 1932. She said of this time "We were always begging for books, never had enough and always wished for a piano or violin"
While working in the Australian Women's Land Army in Sydney, Bandler experienced the imbalance in the wages between Indigenous and white Australians saying "Women were paid three parts of the male wage for equal work and there was a period when they could not borrow money from a bank. These are very serious and big issues - underpaid, disadvantaged, segregated on grounds of colour and gender,” worse still Aboriginals has no right to vote or freedom to travel.
Faith Bandler was a key figure in the movement for the rights Indigenous Australians and particularly the struggle to achieve justice for the Stolen Generation, who had been removed from their parents by the Aboriginal Protection Board (1883) and educated by the State in mission schools and then placed in work on farms or reservations. By co-founding the Aboriginal Australian Fellowship in 1956, she campaigned successfully to abolish the Aborigines Welfare Board 1969. Although each state and territory had different laws the indigenous population were subject to discrimination in pay, land rights, racism and citizenship.
Between 1957-67, Bandler participated in the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders' successful campaign to change the constitution to include Indigenous people in the national census and to empower the Federal government to legislate for Indigenous people. Bandler says of the Referendum which passed with 90.2%of the vote:"Indigenous people now have all the rights that other Australians have. They can live where they can afford to live and choose. They are no longer shut away under reservations. They have freedom of movement. And if they have the skills, they have the work opportunities. But Australia still has elements of racism. People are still described more or less by their ethnicity instead of the contributions they make to the country."
Bandler’s campaigns included the struggle women’s rights and in 1972, she co-founded the Women's Electoral Lobby. From 1974 -75 Bandler extended her focus and fought for the rights of South Sea Islanders, visited her father’s birthplace on Ambrym and co-founded the National Commission for Australian South Sea Islanders. As an executive member of the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders (Fcaatsi) from 1962-73 she inspired the resurgence of Aboriginal activism in the 1970s.
In 1999, her speech to the New South Wales Reconciliation Convention focused on unity and co-operation: "History has shown that a genuine people's movement can move more than governments. It can move mountains." Her history gave her a personal relationship with many of her audience and their shared history of struggle against discrimination and for equal rights for gave her credibility. Her views are that the common goal can best be achieved through faith and hope rather than violence and confrontation can be compared with Noel Pearson’s far more aggressive and challenging approach to the problems of equal rights, justice and reconciliation.
Bandler refers to the contemporary political context and the seeming lack of direction and momentum in the land rights debate where Aboriginal activists such as Eddie Mabo had challenged the government and won substantial advances in achieving a national awareness of the plight of Aboriginal Australian and the justice of their claims and land rights.
Bandler’s sustained struggles to overcome poverty and injustice by peaceful means have earned her significant recognition.
|1984||Order of Australia|
|1994||Honorary doctorate from Macquarie University for her lifetime’s achievements|
|1997||The Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission awarded her a Human Rights Medal|
|2000||Sydney Peace Foundation award presented by Nelson Mandela|
Her achievements have also been recognised in a biography Faith Bandler, Gentle Activist, by Professor Marilyn Lake of La Trobe University, Australia, Allen and Unwin 2002
Bandler’s personal warmth and empathy permeates her speeches and written texts which are informed by her belief that social justice is best achieved by listening and trying not to offend or antagonise her audience even when she is challenging their views. She relies on authentic stories of injustices and creates empathy to overcome cultural prejudices saying: "We have no right to ask others to do what we do not do ourselves."
An accomplished author Bandler has written:
Australian Identity, Unity
The following diagram is a suggested approach to structuring a response on more than one speech:
Justice, freedom, equality, unity
Women’s rights, equality, freedom, unity
|Hope, Faith and Reconciliation||Faith Bandler||Unity, justice, identity, equality||‘Talking up’ Reconciliation Convention, Wollongong, Australia August 1999|
|Example/Quote||Language/Structure||Rhetorical device||Links to other speeches|
|‘There was a little sadness because I felt the reconciliation program had slowed since 1967 and then the considerable support for those who sponsored racism excused some of their terrible utterances in the name of free speech, and then the terrible tragedy revealed to us of the stolen generation’||Personal voice, introductory statement contextualising the speech. Colloquial language, informal style, alliteration.||Emotive language, bold statement.||Anwar Sadat – Statement to the Knesset- ‘I come to you today on solid ground, to shape a new life, to establish peace. We all, on this land, the land of God: we all, Muslims Christians and Jews, worship God and no one but God. God’s teachings and commandments are love, sincerity, purity and peace.’|
Born in Melbourne, Victoria, William Deane was educated in St Joseph’s College, Hunter’s Hill and the University of Sydney gradating in arts and law. He furthered his studies overseas at the Hague Academy of International Law. Deane travelled through Europe developing his knowledge of International Law, worked for the federal Attorney General’s Department, Canberra, lectured on law at Sydney University and was called to the Bar in 1957.
His affiliations in the Catholic community, anti communist sentiments and interest in politics led to a brief membership in 1955 of the Democratic Labor Party. Although he left the party and politics he retained a passionate concern for racial discrimination and social justice.
|1977||appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court of New South Wales, appointed as President of the Australian Trade Practices Tribunal to the Federal Court of Australia.|
|1982||appointed to the High Court of Australia, replacing Sir Ninian Stephen. He contributed to the recognition of native title in the Mabo case, 1992.|
|1982||appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire|
|1988||a Companion of the Order of Australia|
|1995||appointed as Governor-General to succeed Bill Hayden and sworn in on 16 February 1996 following his retirement from the High Court in November.|
|2001||after retirement from the post of Governor-General, his increasingly critical comments on social issues and the Howard government caused him to become the target of the conservative media.|
|2001||awarded the Sydney Peace Prize "for his consistent support of vulnerable and disadvantaged Australians and his strong commitment to the cause of reconciliation."|
Sir William Deane’s sympathy for the Indigenous Australians made him a controversial figure as when he suggested a monument to Aboriginal massacre victims. Duffy writing in the Daily Telegraph was among Deanne’s critics and suggested that links between the ‘Nazi Holocaust’ and ‘Australian history’ were damaging to the Australian identity and their view of their past.
Source: article by Robert Manne http://www.eniar.org/news/rightwrong.html
Australian Identity, Unity
|Sir William Deane – Governor General of the Commonwealth of Australia on the Occasion of an ecumenical service for the victims of the canyoning tragedy.||Sir William Deane||Unity, identity, faith, loss||Switzerland -Ecumenical service for the victims of the canyoning tragedy|
|Example/Quote||Language/Structure||Rhetorical device||Links to other speeches|
|‘…There in memory of each of the 14 young people who came from our homeland, we cast into the Saxetenbach 14 sprigs of wattle, our national floral emblem, which we had brought with us from Government House, Canberra. Somehow, we felt that was bringing a little of Australia to them,’||Symbolism, repetition, metaphor, paradox||Emotive language||Paul Keating – Funeral Service for the Unknown Australian Soldier.
‘He is one of them. And he is one of us. This Australia and the Australia he knew are like foreign countries. The tide of events since he died has been so dramatic, so vast and all consuming, a world has been created beyond the reach of his imagination
|‘ …the golden wattles are coming into bloom. Just as these young men and women were in the flower of youth. And when we are back in Australia we will remember how the flowers and the perfume and the pollen of their and our homeland were carried down the river where they died to lake Brienz in this beautiful country on the far side of the world. May they all rest with God.||Symbolism, cumulative use of clauses||Emotive language||Because the Great War was a mad, brutal, awful struggle…because the waste of human life was so terrible that some said victory was hardly discernable from defeat…We might think the unknown soldier died in vain.’|
Born in 1918 in Mit Abul Kom, a town within the British Colony, Anwar al-Sadat grew up with anti- colonial sympathies. He became one of the first Egyptian students in a military school founded by the British where he pursued Maths, Science and military history. His interest in the Battle of Gettysburg and his meeting with Gamal Abdel Nasser while posted in a minor army base in Egypt re-enforced his militant anti –corruption and anti-colonial stance.
Sadat’s association with Nassar continued through the latter’s life and Sadat succeeded Nassar in 1970. As a result of Sadat’s opposition to the corrupt regime he was jailed twice and after the second term of imprisonment left the armed services to become Nassar’s minister for Public Relations in charge of monitoring the abdication King Farouk and Egypt’s independence from British colonialisation
Although overshadowed by Nassar during the latter’s lifetime Sadat became a militant leader who threatened Israel between1970-73. He was responsible for the war on Israel which began on Yon Kippur in October 1973 and ended in a stalemate. The weak financial situation in Egypt at the time precipitated riots.
The failure of his military initiative resulted in a change in tactics and Sadat became a voice for political negotiation. It was in this context that the ‘Statement to the Knesset’ took place. His visit to Israel was unprecedented for an Egyptian leader and the Sadat Initiative as it came to be called culminated in the Camp David talks which were led by American President Jimmy Carter. Sadat was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Sadat’s improved relationship with Israel and America was greeted with suspicion and hostility in Egypt and although he tried to improve the living conditions of the poor particularly, in Cairo, he had many detractors especially among Muslim fundamentalists. Sadat was assassinated on October 6th 1981.
|1952, July 23rd||Free Officers Organisation ousted the monarchy. Sadat becomes Nassar’s public relations minister.|
|1967||Israel invades Sinai Desert to the Suez Canal. 3,000 Egyptian soldiers killed.|
|1970||Nassar dies. Sadat becomes President of Egypt|
|1973||Sadat attacks Israel in the Yom Kippur War|
|1977||Sadat informs the Egyptian Parliament that he will visit Israel and pursue a ‘peace dividend’ Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize|
|1981||October 6th – Sadat is assassinated by Muslim fundamentalists|
The speech delivered by Anwar Sadat in response to an invitation by Israel’s Prime Minister Begin was controversial as it contravened Arab policy of refusing to deal publically with the Jewish state established in 1948. There had been four wars between Israel and Egypt and Israel still occupies the Sinai Peninsula captured in 1967. Sadat was concerned about the rise of Fundamentalist Islam and this speech contributed to making him a prime target for their hostility.
Sadat's visit to Jerusalem in November 1977 was an event of tremendous importance, the results of which are still evident. His exceptional political wisdom taught us that a considerable part of the conflict is actually a psychological barrier - alienation, suspicion and mistrust - and that we can progress to a better future if we only find a way to overcome it.
When Sadat announced his willingness to come to Jerusalem, people argued that there was an ulterior motive to his visit, and that, in actuality, his views had not changed significantly. The shock that spread among parts of the public and the Israeli leadership proved how difficult it was to believe in a real move for peace and reconciliation in the existing whirlpool of hostility and hatred. It seems the psychological barrier in the conflict is still in force today, as is the necessary conclusion: Breaking this barrier is essential for developing a constructive dialogue.
The results of the visit were far-reaching: For the first time in the history of the conflict, an Arab leader expressed his willingness to recognize Israel unequivocally, to live with it in peace and security and to accept it into the family of nations in the region. Thus Israel was given the opportunity to become a part of the Middle East. Moreover, by publicly addressing Israel, Sadat demonstrated his acceptance of the principle of direct negotiations.
But apparently the results of Sadat's visit were not sufficiently internalized by the generation born after the event. This generation tends to treat the strong peaceful relations between Egypt and Israel as self-evident, and occasionally even tries to minimize the importance of the fact that the Israeli flag flies in the heart of Cairo. One might say it's a good thing that this generation is not familiar with any other reality.
The historical perspective of almost three decades reinforces the impression of the farsightedness of the Egyptian leader, and particularly of his words on the Knesset dais, that "peace is not a mere endorsement of written lines. Rather it is a rewriting of history." To a certain degree, it is ironic that while Israel repeatedly claimed that its hand was stretched out for peace, it was Sadat who so well expressed the desire for a new life and taught the younger generation in the region a new chapter in history: a chapter of reconciliation, recognition and mutual respect.
Identity, Unity, Peace, Justice, Freedom
Faith Bandler – ‘Faith, Hope and Reconciliation’.
Noel Pearson – ‘An Australian History for us all’.
Aung San Suu Kyi –‘Keynote Address at the Beijing World Conference on Women’.
|Statement to the Knesset||Anwar Sadat – President of Egypt||Peace, unity, justice, identity||Address to the Israeli Knesset. November 20th 1977.|
|Example/Quote||Language/Structure||Rhetorical device||Links to other speeches|
|‘In the name of God, the Gracious and the Merciful… Finally, amidst the ruins of what man has built and there remain of the victims of Mankind, there emerges neither victim or vanquished. The only vanquished remains man, God’s most sublime creation, man whom God has created – as Ghandi, the apostle of peace puts it: to forge ahead to mould the way of life and worship God Almighty.”||Personal voice, introductory statement contextualising the speech, alliteration, use of emotive verbs||Emotive language, bold statement, religious allusion, political allusion, repetition||Aung San Suu Kyi – Keynote Address at the Beijing World Conference on Women’ August 31st 1995.
‘In its Human Development Report last year, the UNDP noted that human security ‘is not a concern with weapons – but a concern with human life and dignity’. The struggle for democracy and human rights in Burma is a struggle for life and dignity. It is a struggle that encompasses our political, social and economic aspirations.